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Biosecurity: The Ultimate Security of our Business

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Managing infectious from entering diseases, risks livestock extends pests properties, (e.g farther . soldier into arresting ants) prevention and disease weeds of spread from a contaminated environment to uncontaminated area ultimately securing our investment. This is a shared responsibility as Farm owners, managers, animal handlers, the governments, scientists, Veterinarians and the community play vital roles in protecting our livestock industry from disease introduction and spread, as well as reducing the incidence of existing diseases.

Many aspects of biosecurity are common sense, but if these strategies and practices are not enforced consistently as standard operative procedure, there avails a great risk of introducing animal diseases which are always accompanied with great to grievous economic costs. Adopting good biosecurity measures also checkmate zoonotic disease spread from animals to farm staff and the society at large. Biosecurity practices on livestock farms involve isolation, traffic control (restricting movement), and sanitation (feed, water, staff,equipment and environmental sanitation) policing entry of disease causing agents and curtailing disease spread in a bid to guaranty a healthy flock. This starts from the main gate and extends to all aspects of the farm.

Employee Sanitation
There must be functional hand-wash basin at the entrance of the farm and pen, for use before and after handling birds, picking eggs, carrying feed, milking animals, working with sick animals, and young animals. A walk-through and foot-dip is also required to facilitate good disinfection. Everybody on the farm should be fully kitted e.g. provision of farm broiler suit for attendants and supervisors with individual footwear (e.g. boot). Hand gloves when frequent cleaning between animals is necessary. Employee movement must be restricted while managers ought always to work with younger animals before older animals. Provide on-farm laundry, encouraging wash of farm clothing with detergents, rinse in plain water and then immersed in disinfectant solution before drip-drying. Vehicle/ Transport Biosecurity Measures Wash and disinfect all vehicles (with keen attention on the tyres), especially when known to visit more than one farm. Functional foot-dips and hand-wash must be at the security gate as biosecurity exempt no one. Everybody entering the premises must observe this ritual (including the driver) Always ensure that visitor/service vehicles never drive over feed delivery or manure handling routes. Visitors' vehicles must be restricted to areas not accessible to poultry and livestock herds Farm tourism must be avoided at all costs if possible.


Animal Management

Medical screening (e.g. Day Old Chicks' screening) is a very important necessary biosecurity measure. All new animals must be held isolated in a separate pen/area. A quarantine period should be established to facilitate monitoring and ascertaining the health status of new animals. This is to prevent disease spread to existing flock. Younger animals should be kept in a separate area from more mature animals, avoiding the risks of disease exposure on the younger susceptible animals. Always ensure sick animals are handled last. Restricted isolation area intended for sick animals must be routinely cleaned and disinfected to curtail disease spread. Avoid overcrowding/ high stocking density and fence-line contact between your livestock and other animals Always ensure up-to-date vaccination of all animals within your farm.

Feed Management

  • All feed stuffs must be handled on a first-in-first-out basis, rotating inventory.
  • Bagged feed stuffs should be arranged on pallets (off the floor), in a way to facilitate maximum aeration.
  • Clean storage areas frequently, repeatedly checking for and disposing moldy/spoiled materials.
  • Place or empty opened bags into a containers that have tight lids to avoid pests and water.
  • Keep feed storage areas inaccessible to rodents, birds, dogs, cats, and any wildlife.
  • Protect all water sources and containers from animal carcasses
  • (e.g. dead birds or vermin) and manure.
  • Equipment Sanitation
  • Clean and disinfect all equipment used on sick animals thoroughly before re-use.
  • Use the farm-owned equipment whenever possible, ensuring cleaning and disinfection between uses
  • Sanitize nursing equipment (e.g. bottles and buckets) before each feeding.
  • Equipment for handling manure must not be used in transporting/delivering feed.
  • Do not transfer equipment from disease prevalent/outbreak areas to areas with susceptible population(s).
  • Disposal of Dead Animals
  • Carcasses should be submitted for professional post mortem examination
  • In case of suspected Anthrax outbreak, do not open carcass.
  • Bury all carcasses deep in the ground, after burning.
  • Manure Or Litter Handling
  • Prevent run-off/transfer of manure from older to younger groups of animals.
  • Deep litter from pens where highly infectious disease (e.g. Gumboro disease) occurred should be removed and burnt.
  • Ensure the manure/litter and waste disposal system prevents environmental contamination. Compost manure in conditions that destroy disease-causing bacteria and make inaccessible to livestock.
  • Remove manure frequently with equipment specific for manure removal.

Facility Maintenance

Repair holes in buildings to prevent pest entry. Be wary of rodent dens and hiding places, so set baits and traps where necessary. Routinely check for damages and fix as need arises (including bird netting and fences) Always observe thorough terminal disinfection protocols at the end of a breeding cycle. Use of potent Acaricide is also required in pest control. Remove any standing water and gutters that can turn into a breeding ground for mosquitoes (carriers of fowl pox virus). Egg sales units and holding pens for animal pickups located near the road, far from farm pens/ herds/barns must be routinely cleaned and disinfected.

Disinfectants that can be used for Biosecurity

Reliance on disinfectants should strictly be on the bases of efficacy and anti-microbial activities.

Effective disinfectants include:

A broad spectrum chemo-gaseous disinfectant that contains formalin, gluteraldehyde and Benzalkonium Chloride. E.g.Diskol. A controlled iodine releasing complex disinfectant for poultry, pig and ruminant farms. E.g. Polidine. A thoroughly effective broad spectrum sanitizers that deals with all disease causing agents in all farm animals, even for system use at recommended concentration e.g. V-ox, Formalin 40%